习惯改变消费

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习惯改变消费

帖子  Pao-西安 于 周一 一月 21, 2013 1:03 am

原文

The Power of Habit

The process within our brains that creates habits is a three-step loop. First, there is a cue, a trigger that tells your brain to go into automatic mode and which habit to use. Then there is the routine, which can be physical or mental or emotional. Finally, there is a reward, which helps your brain figure out if this particular loop is worth remembering for the future. Over time, this loop — cue, routine, reward; cue, routine, reward — becomes more and more automatic. The cue and reward become neurologically intertwined until a sense of craving emerges. What’s unique about cues and rewards, however, is how subtle they can be. Neurological studies like the ones in Graybiel’s lab have revealed that some cues span just milliseconds. And rewards can range from the obvious (like the sugar rush that a morning doughnut habit provides) to the infinitesimal (like the barely noticeable — but measurable — sense of relief the brain experiences after successfully navigating the driveway). Most cues and rewards, in fact, happen so quickly and are so slight that we are hardly aware of them at all. But our neural systems notice and use them to build automatic behaviors.

Habits aren’t destiny — they can be ignored, changed or replaced. But it’s also true that once the loop is established and a habit emerges, your brain stops fully participating in decision-mak-ing. So unless you deliberately fight a habit — unless you find new cues and rewards — the old pattern will unfold automatically.

Some of the most ambitious habit experiments have been conducted by corporate America. To understand why executives are so entranced by this science, consider how one of the world’s largest companies, Procter & Gamble, used habit insights to turn a failing product into one of its biggest sellers. P.& G. is the corporate behemoth behind a whole range of products, from Downy fabric softener to Bounty paper towels to Duracell batteries and dozens of other household brands. In the mid-1990s, P.& G.’*ecutives began a secret project to create a new product that could eradicate bad smells. P.& G. spent millions developing a colorless, cheap-to-manufacture liquid that could be sprayed on a smoky blouse, stinky couch, old jacket or stained car interior and make it odorless. In order to market the product — Febreze — the company formed a team that included a former Wall Street mathematician named Drake Stimson and habit specialists, whose job was to make sure the television commercials, which they tested in Phoenix, Salt Lake City and Boise, Idaho, accentuated the product’s cues and rewards just right.

The first ad showed a woman complaining about the smoking section of a restaurant. Whenever she eats there, she says, her jacket smells like smoke. A friend tells her that if she uses Febreze, it will eliminate the odor. The cue in the ad is clear: the harsh smell of cigarette smoke. The reward: odor eliminated from clothes. The second ad featured a woman worrying about her dog, Sophie, who always sits on the couch. “Sophie will always smell like Sophie,” she says, but with Febreze, “now my furniture doesn’t have to.” The ads were put in heavy rotation. Then the marketers sat back, anticipating how they would spend their bonuses. A week passed. Then two. A month. Two months. Sales started small and got smaller. Febreze was a dud.

The panicked marketing team canvassed consumers and conducted in-depth interviews to figure out what was going wrong, Stimson recalled. Their first inkling came when they visited a woman’s home outside Phoenix. The house was clean and organized. She was something of a neat freak, the woman explained. But when P.& G.’s scientists walked into her living room, where her nine cats spent most of their time, the scent was so overpowering that one of them gagged.

According to Stimson, who led the Febreze team, a researcher asked the woman, “What do you do about the cat smell?”

“It’s usually not a problem,” she said.

“Do you smell it now?”

“No,” she said. “Isn’t it wonderful? They hardly smell at all!”

A similar scene played out in dozens of other smelly homes. The reason Febreze wasn’t selling, the marketers realized, was that people couldn’t detect most of the bad smells in their lives. If you live with nine cats, you become desensitized to their scents. If you smoke cigarettes, eventually you don’t smell smoke anymore. Even the strongest odors fade with constant exposure. That’s why Febreze was a failure. The product’s cue — the bad smells that were supposed to trigger daily use — was hidden from the people who needed it the most. And Febreze’s reward (an odorless home) was meaningless to someone who couldn’t smell offensive scents in the first place.

P.& G. employed a Harvard Business School professor to analyze Febreze’s ad campaigns. They collected hours of footage of people cleaning their homes and watched tape after tape, looking for clues that might help them connect Febreze to people’s daily habits. When that didn’t reveal anything, they went into the field and conducted more interviews. A breakthrough came when they visited a woman in a suburb near Scottsdale, Ariz., who was in her 40s with four children. Her house was clean, though not compulsively tidy, and didn’t appear to have any odor problems; there were no pets or smokers. To the surprise of everyone, she loved Febreze.

“I use it every day,” she said.

“What smells are you trying to get rid of?” a researcher asked.

“I don’t really use it for specific smells,” the woman said. “I use it for normal cleaning — a couple of sprays when I’m done in a room.”

The researchers followed her around as she tidied the house. In the bedroom, she made her bed, tightened the sheet’s corners, then sprayed the comforter with Febreze. In the living room, she vacuumed, picked up the children’s shoes, straightened the coffee table, then sprayed Febreze on the freshly cleaned carpet.

“It’s nice, you know?” she said. “Spraying feels like a little minicelebration when I’m done with a room.” At the rate she was going, the team estimated, she would empty a bottle of Febreze every two weeks.

When they got back to P.& G.’s headquarters, the researchers watched their videotapes again. Now they knew what to look for and saw their mistake in scene after scene. Cleaning has its own habit loops that already exist. In one video, when a woman walked into a dirty room (cue), she started sweeping and picking up toys (routine), then she examined the room and smiled when she was done (reward). In another, a woman scowled at her unmade bed (cue), proceeded to straighten the blankets and comforter (routine) and then sighed as she ran her hands over the freshly plumped pillows (reward). P.& G. had been trying to create a whole new habit with Febreze, but what they really needed to do was piggyback on habit loops that were already in place. The marketers needed to position Febreze as something that came at the end of the cleaning ritual, the reward, rather than as a whole new cleaning routine.

The company printed new ads showing open windows and gusts of fresh air. More perfume was added to the Febreze formula, so that instead of merely neutralizing odors, the spray had its own distinct scent. Television commercials were filmed of women, having finished their cleaning routine, using Febreze to spritz freshly made beds and just-laundered clothing. Each ad was designed to appeal to the habit loop: when you see a freshly cleaned room (cue), pull out Febreze (routine) and enjoy a smell that says you’ve done a great job (reward). When you finish *** a bed (cue), spritz Febreze (routine) and breathe a sweet, contented sigh (reward). Febreze, the ads implied, was a pleasant treat, not a reminder that your home stinks.

And so Febreze, a product originally conceived as a revolutionary way to destroy odors, became an air freshener used once things are already clean. The Febreze revamp occurred in the summer of 1998. Within two months, sales doubled. A year later, the product brought in $230 million. Since then Febreze has spawned dozens of spinoffs — air fresheners, candles and laundry detergents — that now account for sales of more than $1 billion a year. Eventually, P.& G. began mentioning to customers that, in addition to smelling sweet, Febreze can actually kill bad odors. Today it’s one of the top-selling products in the world.


习惯改变消费

去年一月底,《纽约时报》揭发“苹果供应链是血汗工厂”的头条报导,引爆全球热议。一个月后,写出这篇调查报导的记者杜希格(Charles Duhigg),再度端出了另个他的大作:探讨习惯如何形成、如何改变的新书《习惯的力量》(The Power of Habit)。

世界上有两种人:空想家和行动者

空想家们善于谈论、想象、渴望、甚至于设想去做大事情;而行动者则是去做!行动者比空想家做得成功,是因为,行动者一贯采取持久的、有目的的行动,而空想家很少去着手行动,或是刚开始行动便很快懈怠了。行动者具备有目的地改变生活的能力。他们能够完成非凡的事业,不论是开创一个自己的公司,写作一本书,拥有健康的身体,还是参加马拉松比赛,以及其他事业。而与此形成鲜明对比的便是,空想家只会站到一边,仅仅是梦想过这些而已。

是什么阻碍了空想家实现梦想?难道只是因为对“开始”的畏惧?或是对失败的担忧?或者,是因为空想家不够聪明,缺乏智慧,能力欠缺,还是运气不佳?而究竟又是什么使得行动者能够去做,从而成就了令人满意的事业,而空想家却注定了一个又一个的失败?答案很简单:给予行动者动力的,同时也是阻碍空想家进步的,那都是同样一件事物:习惯!  因此,如果说习惯决定命运也是不为过的。

习惯是什么  
1.一种重复性的、通常为无意识的日常行为规律,它往往通过对某种行为的不断重复而获得;  
2.思维和性格的某种倾向;  
3.一种习惯性的态度和行为。
形成习惯的过程实际上是有意识的行动的不断重复,从有意识的不熟悉到有意识的熟悉,再到无意识熟悉,就进入潜意识而变成习惯了。

四成行为都是习惯的产物
每天早上一起床,你会先做什么?刷牙洗脸,还是上网看信?穿鞋的时候,左脚先,还是右脚先?上班都走哪条路?中午吃便当或汉堡?下班回到家,你会穿上球鞋去慢跑,还是坐在电视前面吃晚饭?

“我们的一生,说穿了,就是无数个习惯的组合,”美国心理学之父威廉詹姆斯曾说。许多人常以为,自己在日常生活中的每个抉择,都是深思熟虑后的理性决定。事实上,愈来愈多研究证明,你我的很多行为,都是习惯的产物。习惯不仅左右了我们的日常行为,也决定了我们能不能成功追求个人、组织、甚至社会目标 ── 无论你想要减肥、戒酒、运动、存钱,或是行销产品、经营获利、推广社会理念,成败的关键,往往就在于习惯的转变。

在新书《习惯的力量》里,杜希格利用近年来突飞猛进的神经科学、行为心理学研究,深入浅出地剖析:习惯是怎么形成的、如何烙印在我们的脑部,以及该怎么做,才能有效改变某些根深蒂固的习惯,达成想要的目标。

习惯形成的三部曲

简单来说,每种习惯的形成,都有三部曲:
第一步,“存在着一个暗示,能引发某一项行为自动进行或开始展现。” 比如,早上8点上班,7点需要起床。
第二步,形成做事的固定顺序 ,也就是行为本身……例如,洗澡的时候先洗脸,再洗头发,再洗衣服。
第三步是奖赏,告诉我们的大脑,是否应把这个习惯存下来以备将来之用。”例如,洗完澡神清气爽,心情愉悦。为了要获得“奖赏”,我们会从提示开始,不断重复惯性行为,形成所谓的“习惯回路”或者“习惯循环”。

想要改变习惯,就必须了解这种回路或者循环是如何形成、运作,再找出切入点,建立新的习惯。

习惯养成的时间----神奇的21天 

简单地说任何一种行为只要不断地重复,就会成为一种习惯。同样道理,任何一种思想只要不断地重复,也会成为一种习惯,在不知不觉中影响人的行为。 习惯是有意识的选择,如果我们能将好的思维方式,好的行为、好的工作方式变成习惯,那我们就会很轻松地获得成功与快乐的人生。

行为心理学研究表明:21天以上的重复会形成习惯;90天的重复会形成稳定的习惯。即同一个动作,重复21天就会变成习惯性的动作;同样道理,任何一个想法,重复21天,或者重复验证21次,就会变成习惯性想法。所以,一个观念如果被别人或者自己验证了 21次以上,它一定已经变成了你的信念。

改变习惯的案例——消费习惯

去年,京东、苏宁、国美上演了一场那场轰轰烈烈的电商大战:京东商城、苏宁易购、国美网上商城、当当网、易讯网等众多国内B2C电商巨头之间开始了堪称“惨烈”的数码家电价格战。

尽管后来网友们发现,各家价格“上蹿下跳”,也没便宜多少,更像是噱头而非真的降价。但不少业内人士认为,不管哪一方获胜,这场电商大战都已经成功了,“至少让原本对网络完全陌生的人知道了‘网上也能买家电’,‘网上的东西比实体店便宜’这些理念带来的冲击将是革命性的,至少会是让很多人改变购物习惯的开始。”

养成习惯的这一方法不仅可以帮助许多商家成功推销自己的产品,让消费者成为一种消费习惯。更能改变人们的生活和事业。

Pao-西安

帖子数 : 74
注册日期 : 12-09-07

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